Tf Buffer Lookuptransform Python

You need to keep track of which "section" of the file you are processing and only call the appropriate subroutine. Undefined symbol in custom costmap layer during runtime caused by tf2 Buffer transform. # Note that lookup_transform returns a tuple of the form (trans, rot). The number of records output from Asynchronous components can be less \ more than the number of records input to the components. This often led to a steep learning curve and a significant amount of code restructuring, taking time away from the actual. It provides functions which use geometric types as input and output as well as functions for easily converting geometries between different representations. When using the Pickit ROS interface, Pickit requires the robot pose of the robot being published on the ROS topic /pickit/robot_pose. " ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": { "colab_type": "text", "id": "VUJTep_x5-R8" }, "source": [ "This guide gives you the basics to get started with Keras. To read a file of TFRecords, use tf. A buffer method is slightly costly than Z-buffer method because it requires more memory in comparison to the Z-buffer method. What is intriguing is the lookup component in full cache mode does not hit the memory limits in ths same 32-bit env compared to the cache transform. Welcome to PyOpenCL’s documentation!¶ PyOpenCL gives you easy, Pythonic access to the OpenCL parallel computation API. These transformations and coordinate systems will be discussed below in more detail. The model matrix transforms a position in a model to the position in the world. TFコマンド フレームツリーグラフ $ rosrun tf view_frames $ evince frames. > > A security vulnerability results because idq. graph_edit_distance this function calculate how much edit graph can be became isomorphic, that is return value of the function. tf and Time. I have been waiting for more than 10 mins and this isn't still complete. saved_model. 681 miliseconds old. In this example, we are going to use the OLE-DB Connection to connect with SQL Server, and perform SSIS lookup operation. org: Python is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. #!/usr/bin/env python import rospy from # Give tf some time to fill its buffer # Get the starting position from the tf transform between the odom. tf_listener = tf. use_trajectory_builder_3d()确定使用的类型。. You could put any bytes you like in a TFRecords file, but it'll be more useful to use the formats provided in TensorFlow. TFRecordReader with the tf. Georeferencing is the process of assigning real-world coordinates to each pixel of the raster. If a Dissolve Type of All or List (ALL or LIST in Python) is used, the output will not have this field. These include scripts to prepare, test and evaluate the model. While reading about TensorFlow. Different softwares use different scales. tf (Python) — tf 0. Re: tf, use_sim_time, --clock, and bag files This is a bug with pytf that is being fixed, but requires enough code to be more than a quick fix. The argument may be a floating point number to indicate a more precise sleep time. To bring this across has been a major point of Google's TF 2 information campaign since the early stages. Explicit Type Conversion is also called Type Casting, the data types of object are converted using predefined function by user. The Python cryptography toolkit is intended to provide a reliable and stable base for writing Python programs that require cryptographic functions. Data manipulation in Python is nearly synonymous with NumPy array manipulation: even newer tools like Pandas are built around the NumPy array. Note: 我们的 TensorFlow 社区翻译了这些文档。 因为社区翻译是尽力而为, 所以无法保证它们是最准确的,并且反映了最新的 官方英文文档。. By default the site you linked to uses the Spatial Reference System EPSG 3857 (WGS84 Web Mercator). Python protobuf unpack. UnicodeError: UTF-16 stream does not start with BOM" But if I do create a new file (I did in Notepad on Win XP) and copy paste content of 'inp. decode(self, txt) Example. They are SavedModel, metagraph/checkpoint, frozen_graph. Using open source programming resources for GIS and data science. TF_ONNX is a conversion module to let a protobuffer defined on a protocol buffer another protobuffer on ONNX. With the python version, they developed little stubs, but not full limbs. js application using just JavaScript (or. This lab is Part 1 of the "Keras on TPU" series. The second example trains a neural network policy to reach a goal pose from different starting positions, using guided policy search:. As the electron beam moves across each row, the beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots. Python is a very useful programming language that has an easy to read syntax, and allows programmers to use. They are extracted from open source Python projects. If one component of shape is the special value -1, the size of that dimension is computed so that the total size remains constant. For SIGGRAPH, KDAB has been working on a new Qt 3D based demo. Python is a very useful programming language that has an easy to read syntax, and allows programmers to use. Python protobuf unpack. a community-maintained index of robotics software No version for distro dashing. Purpose: Encoders and decoders for converting text between different representations. tf and Time. 6 using the automated installer, you can just do this:. Python File Methods; Method Description; close() Close an open file. Output buffer or output rows are NOT sync with input buffer. Minimize the browser and try your solution before going further. In this tutorial, we'll go through the basics of TensorFlow and how to use it in Java. 28 includes some significant changes to how previous client libraries were designed in v0. Start reading the buffer from this offset (in bytes); default: 0. The viewport transformation will be represented by a 4x4 matrix. The pytf code is based on a roscpp-based codebase and has issues with simulated time when running in rospy, which is not roscpp-based. Buffer overflow attacks are simple exploits that can give an attacker control over a program or process. launch 因此,所有突然的lookupTransform()都失败了,重复地告诉您: [ERROR] [1287871653. But after attending couple of sessions in TensorFlow, I got the hang of it. First, type this line to import the TensorFlow package and make it available as the local variable tf. Please note that the TensorFlow Java API is an experimental API and hence not covered under any stability guarantee. クライアントにツリーを持たせないActionでの実装 6. Testing Firehose Data Transformation. When trying to transform between /turtle1 and /turtle2. com by David Winterbottom # Randomize lines. Is it any possible to using more than one port in Unconnected Lookup Transformation( :LKP. You can do them in the following order or independently. 018 miliseconds in the past, but the most recent transform in the tf buffer is 7. 2017 I updated the code of the repository to work with TensorFlows new input pipeline. In the previous tutorials we learned about how tf keeps track of a tree of coordinate frames. When I started with TensorFlow it felt like an alien language. Once a FITS file has been read, the header its accessible as a Python dictionary of the data contents, and the image data are in a NumPy array. Now it becomes quite clear that you are attempting to update each buffer for every row in your file. While curses is most widely used in the Unix environment, versions are available for DOS, OS/2, and possibly other systems as well. During the TensorFlow with TensorRT (TF-TRT) optimization, TensorRT performs several important transformations and optimizations to the neural network graph. tf and Time. launch $ rosrun tf tf_echo world turtle1 At time 14960…. The tool's Geographic Transformation parameter is optional. This sample demonstrates how to use the GeometryEngine with a specified geographic transformation to transform a geometry from one coordinate system to another. In other words it is working like a left outer join instead of the inner join that I want. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Tensor to a given shape. Pygments can be installed with the following command:. I found this information here. Used by some the our code, until we migrate to TF2. I am having issues with TF GET using it under a WScript. It is most commonly used to work with Unicode text, but other encodings are also available for. Discover how to prepare. But after attending couple of sessions in TensorFlow, I got the hang of it. ROS Twist和Odometry消息类型使用(Python) 本文转载自 徐尚 查看原文 2017/05/22 0 python / dom / 使用 / ROS / 消息 / 类型 收藏. It can use the standard CPython interpreter, so C libraries like NumPy can be used. If the data size is small and only one buffer can hold the data, there is no point in using the BDD transformation. 编程字典(CodingDict. The C++ kernel of gather op supports batch dimensions. This will mean that all users will be compatible with tf2. In ROS, the “eco-system” and library that facilitates this is called TF. Set the SFM shortcut to run as administrator. Try my machine learning flashcards or Machine Learning with Python Cookbook. 0 documentation. Then there have been plenty of other cleanups all throughout the python code as well. py pr2_example The PR2 should reach the position shown on the right below, and reach a cost of around -600 before the end of 10 iterations. First, we create the builder, input, and output tensor. 请教一下,我在保存地图后,使用已有地图进行导航和定位。然后再次启动机器人(turtlebot3),发现机器人在世界坐标系map中的坐标是0,0,怎么设置和编程才能正确反映机器人在map中的坐标,而不是每次启动,机器人的坐标都是0,0?. TensorFlow Lite for mobile and embedded devices For Production TensorFlow Extended for end-to-end ML components. 10 by default, until that quirk is to disappear with the upcoming release of TF 1. You can create the network by writing python code to create each and every layer manually as the original model. 6 is installed by default. 29-Apr-2018 - Added string instance check Python 2. One of Mako’s central design goals is speed. com by David Winterbottom #:3# # commandlinefu. Python avoids the loss of data in Implicit Type Conversion. As such, I have compiled this first video to include everything from acquiring Python. In the previous tutorials we learned about how tf keeps track of a tree of coordinate frames. 当shuffle buffer_size过大时,会报tensorflow. Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository's web address. Jupyter and the future of IPython¶. ) simple_model. This class defines the API to add Ops to train a model. Transform the coordinate frame of a pose from one fixed frame to another. At minimum you should have the following files containing the retrained tensorflow program: ls tf_files/. We are provided with matrix dimensions and it's base address. time 0 だと、最も時間が新しいバッファにある値を返してくれる. image_geometory にはC++版のTutorialはあるのですが、Python版がありません。 なので、C++版を参考にしてPython版のものを作りました。. A small size saving for each image, but it speeds up the load time of web pages and reduces the bandwidth cost for a website. Introduction Freezing is the process of saving everything (weights, graphs) in the single file. The execution model for TensorFlow differs from Python's scikit-learn, or most tools in R. 1, and other versions allows remote authenticated users to execute arbitrary code via a crafted request to rename a principal. 17g' should be used. 2017 I wrote a new article about a small code change that let's the whole input pipeline run in parallel. You can use the AWS Management Console to ingest simulated stock ticker data. This post will show you how to set up a framebuffer in OpenGL using Python and Pyglet. In a raster scan system, the electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time from top to bottom. If the session contains lookup transformation you can improve the session performance by enabling the look up cache. 20 Dec 2017. Reading and Writing a FITS File in Python. Weighting words using Tf-Idf Updates. x releases will continue with SDL1 until then. The actual suspension time may be less than that requested because any caught signal will terminate the sleep() following execution of. Computer Graphics Composite Transformation with Computer Graphics Tutorial, Line Generation Algorithm, 2D Transformation, 3D Computer Graphics, Types of Curves, Surfaces, Computer Animation, Animation Techniques, Keyframing, Fractals etc. Testing Firehose Data Transformation. 27 and earlier. python and other forums, Python 2. MetaTransformFunction (transbuf, meta, buffer, type, data): #python wrapper for 'GstMetaTransformFunction' Function called for each meta in buffer as a result of performing a transformation on transbuf. TensorFlow is one of the most popular libraries in Deep Learning. TIP: Please refer the Lookup in SSIS. This class defines the API to add Ops to train a model. sleep(2) tfはバッファにデータが溜まるのに時間がかかるので、2秒スリープする。. a community-maintained index of robotics software No version for distro dashing. The FFT is a complicated algorithm, and its details are usually left to those that specialize in such things. 更新 PPO 的时候, 我采用的是 DeepMind 的 for loop 形式. It's pretty long and there is no source code, but there is a lot of theory fundamental to 3D graphics programming in general, not just OpenGL. なので、少々tfの間隔が開いても何かしら返ってくるはず. python is not None. Workflows to use TensorFlow-TensorRT (TF-TRT) There are three workflow to use TF-TRT, based on the Tensorflow model format. Example protocol buffers which contain Features as a field. Re: tf, use_sim_time, --clock, and bag files This is a bug with pytf that is being fixed, but requires enough code to be more than a quick fix. - davheld/tf. tf2 is the second generation of the transform library, which lets the user keep track of multiple coordinate frames over time. Pre-trained models and datasets built by Google and the community. TransformBroadcaster(). tf and Time. XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. graph_edit_distance this function calculate how much edit graph can be became isomorphic, that is return value of the function. Anyway in this article I explain the basic concept of the new Dataset API, so it's still worth reading. There are only three lookup transform components in the package (besides the source and output component), two running in partial cache mode and the other. CodeHilite parses code blocks and wraps them in pre tags. Once a FITS file has been read, the header its accessible as a Python dictionary of the data contents, and the image data are in a NumPy array. 3) Yes, he does. 4 programming guide in Java, Scala and Python. You can also use this to get more exhaustive list:. What I'm gonna do here is to write a python script to turn all the images and associated label from a folder (folder name afters the label) into a tfRecord file, then feed the tfRecord into the network. c in KDM in KDE Software Compilation (SC) 2. In the future, I plan to write a few pure Python datasets, which should be a bit easier. 更新 PPO 的时候, 我采用的是 DeepMind 的 for loop 形式. Note: 我们的 TensorFlow 社区翻译了这些文档。 因为社区翻译是尽力而为, 所以无法保证它们是最准确的,并且反映了最新的 官方英文文档。. import pandas as pd import numpy. When using the Geodesic method for buffer creation, the buffer distance entered will be converted to Meters in all cases. Initially, my thinking was that I can do that using lookup transform method of tf but now I have come to know that this only gives transformation between different frames. This is a Python script that optimizes. クライアントにツリーを持たせないActionでの実装 6. We need two Python envs because our model, DeepLab-v3, was developed under Python 3. You can also save this page to your account. saved_model. I found this information here. 3, package import was supported by a standard Python library module, "ni". " After we've learned how looping works in Python, we'll take another look at these gotchas and explain what's going on. You can configure buffer size and buffer interval while creating your delivery stream. When designing a transformation, the Core Objects palate in the lower left-panel contains the available steps used to build your transformation including input, output, lookup, transform, joins, scripting steps and more. The get just seems to stop mid-retrevial. When the output buffer of Transformation creates a new buffer, then it is Asynchronous transformation. If Pygments is installed, which is a generic syntax highlighter with support for over 300 languages, CodeHilite will also highlight the code block. More About Unicode in Python 2 and 3. Therefore, using types in Python requires a lot of extra code, but falls far short of the level of type safety that other languages can provide. 31,688 questions 5. Then there have been plenty of other cleanups all throughout the python code as well. Whenever a new word index is added to the buffer, the left most element will drop out of the buffer to allow room for the new word index being added. com by David Winterbottom #:2# # commandlinefu. Your help is appreciated!. Experience replay buffer will also be implemented to speed up learning. 018 miliseconds in the past, but the most recent transform in the tf buffer is 7. This will mean that all users will be compatible with tf2. ) simple_model. How to create custom search commands using Splunk SDK for Python A custom search command is a Python script that reads input from stdin and writes output to stdout. 当shuffle buffer_size过大时,会报tensorflow. x source code and applies a series of fixers to transform it into valid Python 3. 0, you can blit data stored in a instance that implements the python buffer interface, or a memoryview thereof, such as numpy arrays, python array. Suatu fungsi dari ASP (Active Server Pages) yang mengolah sementara seluruh output dari script yang dikerjakan sampai eksekusi dari script tersebut komplit, kemudian baru dikirimkan hasil buffer tersebut ke client. This function returns the value decoded from json to an appropriate Python type. I found this information here. This transformation is very useful when during ETL its needs to merge data from two different data sources. What is the benefit of splitting tfrecord file into shards? read TFRecords uses tf. The command works fine without the script launching it. import_meta_graph('my_test_model-1000. Python protobuf unpack Python protobuf unpack. tf and Time. This will mean that all users will be compatible with tf2. 杨林 2019-10-03 13:24:27 回复. 2to3 - Automated Python 2 to 3 code translation¶ 2to3 is a Python program that reads Python 2. import() function like this: saver = tf. As the electron beam moves across each row, the beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots. Installs on top via `pip install horovod`. Publishing the robot pose¶. ROS Topics I tf2_msgs/TFMessage tointerchangetransforms I /tf fordynamictransforms I /tf_static forstatictransforms I Publishershouldlatchatthelastmessage. Meet Horovod Library for distributed deep learning. This function returns the value decoded from json to an appropriate Python type. In the previous tutorials we learned about how tf keeps track of a tree of coordinate frames. tf2 and Time. Pythom time method sleep() suspends execution for the given number of seconds. The stream of training data must keep up with their training speed. TransformListener() TransformListenerオブジェクトを生成する。 44 # Give tf some time to fill its buffer 45 rospy. This tree changes over time, and tf stores a time snapshot for every transform (for up to 10 seconds by default). protocol buffer conventional Python variable names. The aim of this tutorial is to leave a reader who is familiar with Python with sufficient knowledge to build an application that integrates with the Facebook Graph API. Initially, my thinking was that I can do that using lookup transform method of tf but now I have come to know that this only gives transformation between different frames. 每个listener有一个buffer,这个buffer中存储了来自不同tf broadcasters的所有的transform。. 31,688 questions 5. Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository’s web address. GPU •A graphics processing unit (GPU), also occasionally called visual processing unit (VPU), is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the. The TFRecord file format is a simple record-oriented binary format that many TensorFlow applications use for training data. tf is a package that lets the user keep track of multiple coordinate frames over time. but the most recent transform in the tf buffer is 35. This section will present several examples of using NumPy array manipulation to access data and subarrays, and to split, reshape, and join the arrays. The execution model for TensorFlow differs from Python's scikit-learn, or most tools in R. Our goal of using the TF broadcasting is to define and establish the relationship between two different coordinate frames, base_linkand base_laser, and build the relationship tree of the coordinate frames in the system. [Python]How to know pose of turtlebot. While curses is most widely used in the Unix environment, versions are available for DOS, OS/2, and possibly other systems as well. To read an image in Python using OpenCV, use cv2. 885277559]: You requested a transform that is 0. Output buffer or output rows are NOT sync with input buffer. meta: Complete Graph is being contained in this file 2. This article is a complete tutorial to learn data science using python from scratch; It will also help you to learn basic data analysis methods using python; You will also be able to enhance your knowledge of machine learning algorithms. a community-maintained index of robotics software No version for distro dashing. com by David Winterbottom #:2# # commandlinefu. Start reading the buffer from this offset (in bytes); default: 0. sleep(2) 创建TransformListener对象监听坐标系变换,这里需要sleep 2ms用于tf缓冲。 可以通过以下API获取tf变换,保存在TransformListener对象中,通过lookupTransform获取:. Suatu fungsi dari ASP (Active Server Pages) yang mengolah sementara seluruh output dari script yang dikerjakan sampai eksekusi dari script tersebut komplit, kemudian baru dikirimkan hasil buffer tersebut ke client. 8 on the tf2 migration page says. It is useful to know how to convert Caffe models into TensorFlow models. Posted by: Chengwei 11 months, 3 weeks ago () You are going to learn step by step how to freeze and convert your trained Keras model into a single TensorFlow pb file. Above is another situation with a long statement, but there are no unmatched parentheses on a line. This sample demonstrates how to use the GeometryEngine with a specified geographic transformation to transform a geometry from one coordinate system to another. Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository's web address. tf and Time. Data manipulation in Python is nearly synonymous with NumPy array manipulation: even newer tools like Pandas are built around the NumPy array. The viewport transformation will be represented by a 4x4 matrix. No __init__ method is needed because the array is fully initialized after the __new__ method. Inherits tf2_ros::BufferInterface and tf2::BufferCore. 27 and earlier. $ roslaunch learning_tf start_demo. 图(graph)是 tensorflow 用于表达计算任务的一个核心概念。从前端(python)描述神经网络的结构,到后端在多机和分布式系统上部署,到底层 Device(CPU、GPU、TPU)上运行,都是基于图来完成。. Projecting a TF frame onto an image. For example (NB untested). lookupTransform("/turtle2", "/turtle1", ros::Time::now(), transform); } 报错:You requested a transform that is 0. flush() Flush the write buffer of the file stream. x releases will continue with SDL1 until then. Completeness. In this article we will show you, How to use the SSIS Script Component as Transformation with practical example. If Pygments is installed, which is a generic syntax highlighter with support for over 300 languages, CodeHilite will also highlight the code block. The BigQuery client library for Python v0. However, in the case of animation frames that are being rendered, it would be difficult to use checksums to do this sort of thing because of exactly the problem you've brought up. Looping gotchas We're going to start off our journey by taking a look at some "gotchas. This class defines the API to add Ops to train a model. org, a friendly and active Linux Community. 31,688 questions 5. 0, you can blit data stored in a instance that implements the python buffer interface, or a memoryview thereof, such as numpy arrays, python array. What I'm gonna do here is to write a python script to turn all the images and associated label from a folder (folder name afters the label) into a tfRecord file, then feed the tfRecord into the network. detach() Separate the underlying binary buffer from the TextIOBase and return it. By default the site you linked to uses the Spatial Reference System EPSG 3857 (WGS84 Web Mercator). In other words it is working like a left outer join instead of the inner join that I want. Reliable file updates with Python. TIP: Please refer the Lookup in SSIS. In this article, we are going to explain, How to perform Lookup Transformation in SSIS using OLE DB Connection Manager with an example. This tree changes over time, and tf stores a time snapshot for every transform (for up to 10 seconds by default). If you create a trade area around a polygon, the Trade Area tool will use the polygon’s centroid as the basis for creating the trade area. 8 on the tf2 migration page says. 另外一个例子是,当我们保存多张图片时,example格式一致时,我们可以使用tf. I found the topic so interesting that I delved further into it. Structure of the Program. The main difference is that the operations occur outside the realm of the database engine and in the SSIS Data Flow. The API methods can be called directly from within your own custom code or by using one of Cloudinary's SDKs that wrap the API and greatly simplify using its methods. Please note that the TensorFlow Java API is an experimental API and hence not covered under any stability guarantee. apply_matrix. To share this visualization, click the 'Generate URL' button above and share that URL. It proceeds just like the depth buffer algorithm. This tree changes over time, and tf2 stores a time snapshot for every transform (for up to 10 seconds by default). This implies that the python ZRS still works slightly, but the cobra one absolutely doesn’t. [Python]How to know pose of turtlebot. It contains weights, variables, and model configuration. Below is the code snippet: import tf2_ros import tf2_geometry_msgs transform = tf_buffer. The curses module provides an interface to the curses library, the de-facto standard for portable advanced terminal handling. An overview of tf. This post serves as a demonstration of basic source-to-source transformations with Clang. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. 2to3 - Automated Python 2 to 3 code translation¶ 2to3 is a Python program that reads Python 2. If you wonder how to save a model with TensorFlow, please have a look at my previous article before going on. To bring this across has been a major point of Google's TF 2 information campaign since the early stages. When using the Geodesic method for buffer creation, the buffer distance entered will be converted to Meters in all cases. 6 is installed by default. XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. Convert protobuf message to text format. 3 (499 ratings) Course Ratings are calculated from individual students' ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately. Therefore, using types in Python requires a lot of extra code, but falls far short of the level of type safety that other languages can provide. They are SavedModel, metagraph/checkpoint, frozen_graph. Render To Texture with Python 3 and Pyglet. tf_listener = tf. Again, this behaviour is inherited from ed. Unfortunately, the ROS wiki did a very poor job to make all the concepts in the same manner and there is merely any well done tutorials online about this. Python is very powerful, thanks to thousands of extension modules (packages) that you can get from PyPI, the Python Package Index. To write TensorBoard summaries under eager execution, use tf. Such a modern approach opens a wide range of integration options with other cutting edge technologies, solutions, and infrastructures, which makes the whole project developer-friendly. Re: tf, use_sim_time, --clock, and bag files This is a bug with pytf that is being fixed, but requires enough code to be more than a quick fix. When trying to transform between /turtle1 and /turtle2. ROS Topics I tf2_msgs/TFMessage tointerchangetransforms I /tf fordynamictransforms I /tf_static forstatictransforms I Publishershouldlatchatthelastmessage. flush() Flush the write buffer of the file stream. This article will focus on Pillow, a library that is powerful, provides a wide array of image processing features, and is simple to use. However, I think a discussion of the implementation can greatly improve our knowledge of how and why threading increases FPS. 当无batch时,即为dataset item. In this lab, you will learn how to load data from GCS with the tf. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: